Posts tagged biodiversity

Red Panda, the state symbol of Sikkim, is currently classified as Vulnerable due to excessive poaching. Conservation efforts in each state could be focused around the wildlife symbols of that state for maximum effect.

Official state symbols of India – plants and animals

Red Panda, the state symbol of Sikkim, is currently classified as Vulnerable due to excessive poaching. Conservation efforts in each state could be focused around the wildlife symbols of that state for maximum effect.

It is quite possible that you know the national symbols of India. You may know that the National Animal is the Tiger, the national tree is the Banyan Tree, the national bird is the Peacock and the national flower is Lotus. You may, perhaps, also be aware that the Gangetic Dolphin was recently declared the national Aquatic Mammal of India.  However, you may not be aware of the symbols of the different states of India. I wasn’t too, and the information available online was not properly referenced. So, I decided to take advantage of the wiki setup we had with the Biodiversity of India website and compiled an exhaustive, well-referenced list of various state symbols.

What can this list be used for? Well, for starters, it is an educational resource. Teachers can quiz their children on various state symbols and ask them to describe each one of them, draw their pictures and research deeper on where they are found in their state. This list can be used by amateur conservationists, to generate awareness among the common man for conservation of these species. Conservation efforts over the past several decades have shown that if we project a certain flagship species – Tiger in India, Elephant in Africa, Orangutans in Indonesia – and create a movement for their conservation, countless other species also get saved in the process. The same strategy can be used in each state in India, by creating a movement around the state symbol.

The entire list of the official state symbols of India can be accessed here: Official flora and fauna of Indian states.

Genetically modified plants and agrobiodiversity

There is lot of buzz that is going on whether genetically modified plants (GMOs) should be given clearance or not. There are different points in favor and against this issue. Issues like safety for human and animal consumption, seed security of our farmers, adverse effects on land fertility are some of the most prominent issues which get headlines of all major newspapers and magazines. Another harmful effect of GMOs is loss of agricultural biodiversity. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, has already warned the world for the loss of agricultural biodiversity. According to their reports some 75 percent of plant genetic diversity has been lost since 1900 as a result of excessive cultivation of genetically uniform, mass-produced crop varieties. GMO plants are derived from genetic modifications of a specific variety of a plant which produce best phenotypes in terms of either yield or quality. So effectively, all the plants of a field where GMOs are grown are the product of a monoculture. In USA for soybean and maize, two most important crops, GM plants accounts for 93 and 52 percent of total cultivation, respectively. In a country like India, where government has limited control over the distribution of crops on agricultural land, uncontrolled cultivation of GM rice or wheat varieties could lead to a catastrophe. The scenario will even be more serious in case of plants which are the major source of food for the country. For example, a rampant use of GMO rice will result in extinction of many of the native varieties. Imagine a situation where GMO rice is being cultivated on 60% of our rice cultivating areas. Pathogens can always evolve and attack GM plant variety and destroy the produce for that year. This will bring down our economy on its knees.

World map of GMO production (2005). US, Canada, Brazil, China and Argentina produced 95% of world’s GMO crops. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

I once got an opportunity to ask this question to a top official from Monsanto. In his presentation he had shown the rosy picture how farmers in Gujarat are being benefited by GMO cotton and tried to make a case that India should give clearance to GMO rice. I asked him that if a situation arises that a pathogen has evolved against which your rice variety is very susceptible, then what is the minimum time in which we can provide a new set of seed of a resistant rice variety to our market. He said it can take minimum 6 months to flood the market with such new seed variety. That means it will take minimum 10-12 month that the next rice produce will reach to the market. The question is what will happen in these 10-12 months how will our government feed its citizens.

The protection of agricultural biodiversity is another very important point that our law makers and scientist have to ensure before giving clearance to the GMO plants which provide basic food to our country.

First published on Biodiversity of India 

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